Development | Revision Notes

Development | Revision Notes


Idea of Development

Development involves many questions for better life and the ways in which one can work to achieve goals. Different persons can have different goals and what may be development for one person may not be development, or may even be detrimental, for the other.

Income and Other Goals

Generally, people desire to have regular work, better wages and good price for the crops they produce. Apart from earning more income, one may expect to have a better quality of life. The quality of life depends on non-material things such as equal treatment, security, respect for others and freedom in society. For example, women may tend to work in a variety of jobs or start a business to receive a sense of security and freedom in the household and in society.

National Development

The idea about the national development of a country tends to vary and conflict from person to person. To determine whether the country is developed or underdeveloped, one needs to consider the characteristics of a country. Let us consider income as one of the important attributes to compare countries. If a country has a higher income level than other countries, then it is said to be a well-developed country. Therefore, the average income or the per capita income of a country is measured to compare the developmental status of different nations.

Per Capita Income

The per capita income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. Countries with a per capita income of Rs 4,53,000 per annum and above are called rich countries, and countries with a per capita income of Rs 37,000 per annum or less are called low-income countries. In 2004, India was considered a low-income country because its per capita income was just Rs 28,000. In 2006, the World Development Report to classify countries was based on the average income criterion.

Income and Other Criteria

According to the Reserve Bank of India, 2011, the per capita income of Delhi has the highest per capita income and Bihar has the lowest per capita income. While looking at other indicators such as the literacy rate and mortality rate, the literacy rate of Kerala was 93.9%, the highest among these states.

Per Capita Net State Domestic Product
at Factor Cost, 2012–13 (in Rs)
Delhi 173686
Maharashtra 95339
Punjab 78633
Odisha 49489
Bihar 22890
Karnataka 68423
Mizoram 54689
Kerala 80924

Public Facilities

Income is not an adequate indicator of material goods and services which the people are to use. In many regions, education, health and sanitary facilities are not adequately available to educate and prevent from infectious diseases. Kerala has a low infant mortality rate because it has adequate public facilities. The nutritious status will be low in states in which the public distribution system does not function properly.

  • The level of income is an inadequate measure of the level of development; therefore, other indicators such as health and education are used to compare a country’s development.
  • Human Development Report published by UNDP compares countries based on the educational level, health status and per capita income.

Sustainability of Development

The renewable resources are replenished by nature. Let us consider groundwater. If we use groundwater more than what is being replenished by rain, then this resource would be overused. Non-renewable resources are those which will get exhausted after few years of use. Environmental degradation is no longer region or nation-specific. Sustainable development is the development which looks into the requirement of the present and builds scope for the future generations. There are many works in progress for sustainability of development.