Manufacturing Industries I Notes

Manufacturing Industries I Notes

Manufacturing Industries


Industries contribute tremendously to the growth of the country. Industries are included in the secondary sector because they manufacture finished goods from raw materials.

Classification of Industries


Industries are classified into various categories on the basis of ownership of products, capital investments and nature of raw materials

Industries Classification on the basis of Examples
Agro-based Raw materials (forest and agricultural raw materials are used) Cotton textiles, jute textiles, tea
Mineral-based Raw materials (minerals such as iron, bauxite are used) Iron and steel companies, petrochemicals
Small-scale industries Capital Investments Cottage industries
Large-scale industries Capital Investments TISCO
Public Sector Ownership (owned by the Government) BHEL, SAIL
Private Sector Ownership (owned privately by individuals) Reliance, TISCO
Joint Sector Ownership (owned by the Government and private individuals) Oil India Ltd.
Cooperative Sector Ownership (owned and operated by producers and suppliers) Amul
Heavy Industries Weight and bulkiness of raw materials Automobile industries
Light Industries Weight and bulkiness of raw materials Electrical industries

Agro-based Industries
Cotton textiles, woollen textiles, jute and sugar industries are known as agro-based industries as they use agricultural products as raw materials.

Textile Industries
It contributes 14% to industrial production in India and the second largest provider of employment opportunities after agriculture. It contributes 4% towards the GDP of the country.

Cotton Textiles

  • It is one of the traditional industries of India. About 80% of the industries are owned privately, while 20% are owned by the Government and cooperative societies.
  • Most of the cotton industries earlier were centred in Maharashtra and Gujarat because of the existence of humid climate and the availability of cotton, markets, transport facilities and cheap labour.
  • Weaving is done by handloom, power looms and in mills. Khadi industries also provide employment opportunities to a large section of society.
  • USA, UK, Russia, France, Singapore, Sri Lanka and many African countries import cotton textiles from India. We also export yarn to Japan.
  • Some drawbacks of the cotton industries are that spinning and weaving units of the country cannot use high-quality yarn produced in the country. Production takes place in small factories which cater to only local markets. This is thereason that while we export cotton yarn, fabrics have to be imported. Low productivity of labour, irregular supply of electricity and tough competition from the synthetic fibre industry have hit the cotton textile industries hard.


Map showing the location of various textile industries in India

Jute Textiles

  • India is the largest producer of raw jute and the second largest exporter of jute products in the world after Bangladesh.
  • Most jute mills are located in West Bengal along the Hugli River. This is because this area has many jute-growing fields, cheap water transport, cheap labour and a good network of railways and roadways. Kolkata provides financial assistance to the jute industries.
  • The jute industry in India is currently facing many problems. There is stiff competition from Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt and Thailand. Synthetic fibres have also hit the industry hard. To improve the condition of jute industries, the Government formulated the National Jute Policy. Main countries which import jute products are USA, Canada, Australia and the United Arab Emirates.

Sugar Industry

  • India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world and the largest producer of gur and khandsari.
  • Sugar mills are located close to the sugar fields. This is because sugar is bulky to transport and can quickly lose sucrose content.
  • Most of the sugarcane mills are located in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Old and inefficient methods of production and delay in transport of raw materials are two main causes which are hitting the sugarcane industries hard.

Mineral-based Industries

Industries which are using minerals as raw materials are known as mineral-based industries. Some important mineral-based industries are

Iron and Steel Industry

  • India is the fourth largest producer of steel in the world and the largest producer of sponge iron.
  • It is known as a basic industry as steel is needed for machinery of all industries whether heavy, medium or light. Steel is also required for manufacturing a variety of engineering, construction and defence goods. Day-to-day consumer goods such as containers and safety pins are made of steel. It is also a heavy industry as all its raw materials and finished goods are heavy and bulky.
  • Many iron and steel industries are located in the Chotanagpur Plateau as many iron ore fields are located in the surrounding regions. Availability of cheap labour and growth potential have led to the concentration of industries in the region.
  • Despite India being a major producer of iron and steel, it is not able to perform to its potential. This is due to many reasons such as high costs and limited availability of coking coal, irregular supply of electricity and poor infrastructure facilities. However, liberalisation and foreign direct investments have given the industry a much-needed boost.


Map showing the location of major iron and steel plants in India

Aluminium Smelting

  • It is the second most important metallurgic industry in India. Because aluminium is light in weight, a good conductor of electricity, resistant to corrosion and easily malleable, it is used in the manufacturing of aircraft. It is also used in making utensils and wires.
  • Bauxite is the main raw material in the industry. Aluminium smelting plants are mostly located in places where there is a regular supply of electricity and steady assurance of raw materials.
  • Aluminium smelting plants are mainly located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

Chemical Industries

  • It is one of the fastest growing industries in India. It contributes about 3% to India’s GDP. It is the third largest in Asia and twelfth largest in the world.
  • Chemical industries in India produce both organic and inorganic chemicals. Inorganic chemicals are used as raw materials for manufacturing many finished goods. These include synthetic fibres, plastics, paints and adhesives. Sulphuric acid is used for manufacturing fertilisers, while soda ash is used for making glass, soaps and detergents.
  • Organic chemicals include petrochemicals which are used for making synthetic fibres, plastics and dyes.

Fertiliser Industry

  • The fertiliser industries mainly produce fertilisers which contain nitrogen, potash and ammonium phosphate. India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers.
  • The fertiliser industry expanded after the Green Revolution. Some main plants are located in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Odisha and Rajasthan.

Cement Industry

  • The cement industry is an important industry as it is important for the construction of houses, buildings, offices, bridges and dams.
  • The industry uses bulky raw materials such as silica, limestone, alumina and gypsum. Coal, regular electric supply and good infrastructure facilities are other important requirements of the industry.
  • The first cement plant was established in Chennai in 1904. Since then, it is continuously expanding because of many reasons. Decontrol of prices; promulgation of many reform movements related to the industry; the requirement of cement in building of roads, houses, railways and bridges; and the availability of international markets are some factors which have led to the development of cement industries in India.
  • Indian cement is exported to the Middle East, East Asia, South Asia and Africa.

Automobile Industry

  • Many vehicles such as cars, trucks, motor cycles and three wheelers are manufactured in India. The demand for cars has drastically increased in the country.
  • Foreign direct investments have brought new technology into the country.
  • Automobile industries are located in Gurgaon, Delhi, Pune, Chennai, Mumbai, Indore, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.

Electronics Industry and Information Technology

  • In India, there is a great demand for electronic products such as televisions, phones, pagers, radars and computers. The electronics industry is critical for the defence of the country.
  • India has become a major hub of the information industry. Important technology parks are present in Bengaluru, Pune and Hyderabad.
  • About 30% of this industry’s workforce consists of women. The IT industry has been a major earner of foreign exchange for the country.

Industrial Pollution


Four types of pollution are caused by industries. These are

Air Pollution

  • Sources : Release of gases such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide by industries and vehicles.
  • Impact : Hazardous to human health, animals and plants. Can cause irritation and respiratory problems

Water Pollution

  • Sources : Release of chemical discharges into rivers or lakes mainly by paper, chemical and heavy industries and refineries.
  • Impact : Dangerous for human, aquatic organisms and plants.

Land Pollution

  • Sources : Dumping of industrial wastes causes the degradation of soil. Rainwater seeps into the soil carrying these pollutants underground.
  • Impact : Loss of soil fertility which further reduces agricultural production and deterioration of the quality of underground water.

Thermal and Noise Pollution

  • Sources : Thermal plants cause thermal pollution when they discharge hot water into water bodies.
    Noise pollution is caused by construction activities, heavy industries and generators.
  • Impact : Thermal pollution affects marine and plant life. Noise pollution can cause hearing impairment, increase in heart rate and blood pressure.

Steps to Control Environment Degradation

  • Reuse and recycle water
  • Harvesting of rainwater
  • Treating hot water before releasing it into water bodies
  • Make laws to make it mandatory for factories to install electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers and separators for reducing the quantity of industrial smoke.
  • Machinery and generators should be fitted with silencers to reduce noise pollution.

Efforts Made by NTPC towards Cleaning the Environment

National Thermal Power Corporation is a major power-providing corporation in India. The corporation has taken many steps to preserve the natural environment and resources in India.

  1. NTPC has been using the latest techniques and has upgraded its existing equipment. This has helped in reducing wastage of resources.
  2. It has been able to minimise the generation of waste materials by maximising the use of ash.
  3. It has been making efforts to reduce environmental pollution by liquid waste management and ash water recycling systems.
  4. NTPC also supervises and reviews ecological parameters of the surrounding areas where its power stations are located.
  5. It has laid down green belts to maintain ecological balance in regions surrounding its power stations.